Silicon oxides: a promising family of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries
Silicon oxides have been recognized as a promising family of anode materials for high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their abundant reserve, low cost, environmental friendliness, easy synthesis, and high theoretical capacity. However, the extended application of silicon oxides is severely hampered by the intrinsically low conductivity, large volume change, and low initial coulombic efficiency. Significant efforts have been dedicated to tackling these challenges towards practical applications. This Review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis and lithium storage properties of silicon oxide-based anode materials. To present the progress in a systematic manner, this review is categorized as follows: (i) SiO-based anode materials, (ii) SiO2-based anode materials, (iii) non-stoichiometric SiOx-based anode materials, and (iv) Si–O–C-based anode materials. Finally, future outlook and our personal perspectives on silicon oxide-based anode materials are presented.