Single-site and nano-confined photocatalysts designed in porous materials for environmental uses and solar fuels
Silica-based micro-, meso-, macro-porous materials offer attractive routes for designing single-site photocatalysts, supporting semiconducting nanoparticles, anchoring light-responsive metal complexes, and encapsulating metal nanoparticles to drive photochemical reactions by taking advantage of their large surface area, controllable pore channels, remarkable transparency to UV/vis and tailorable physicochemical surface characteristics. This review mainly focuses on the fascinating photocatalytic properties of silica-supported Ti catalysts from single-site catalysts to nanoparticles, their surface-chemistry engineering, such as the hydrophobic modification and synthesis of thin films, and the fabrication of nanocatalysts including morphology controlled plasmonic nanostructures with localized surface plasmon resonance. The hybridization of visible-light responsive metal complexes with porous materials for the construction of functional inorganic–organic supramolecular photocatalysts is also included. In addition, the latest progress in the application of MOFs as excellent hosts for designing photocatalytic systems is described.
- This article is part of the themed collection: New catalytic materials for energy and chemistry in transition