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Issue 1, 2018

Fluorogenic reaction-based prodrug conjugates as targeted cancer theranostics

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Abstract

Theranostic systems are receiving ever-increasing attention due to their potential therapeutic utility, imaging enhancement capability, and promise for advancing the field of personalized medicine, particularly as it relates to the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of cancer. In this Tutorial Review, we provide an introduction to the concepts of theranostic drug delivery effected via use of conjugates that are able to target cancer cells selectively, provide cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, and produce readily monitored imaging signals in vitro and in vivo. The underlying design concepts, requiring the synthesis of conjugates composed of imaging reporters, masked chemotherapeutic drugs, cleavable linkers, and cancer targeting ligands, are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on highlighting the potential benefits of fluorogenic reaction-based targeted systems that are activated for both imaging and therapy by cellular entities, e.g., thiols, reactive oxygen species and enzymes, which are present at relatively elevated levels in tumour environments, physiological characteristics of cancer, e.g., hypoxia and acidic pH. Also discussed are systems activated by an external stimulus, such as light. The work summarized in this Tutorial Review will help define the role fluorogenic reaction-based, cancer-targeting theranostics may have in advancing drug discovery efforts, as well as improving our understanding of cellular uptake and drug release mechanisms.

Graphical abstract: Fluorogenic reaction-based prodrug conjugates as targeted cancer theranostics

Article information


Submitted
29 Jul 2017
First published
23 Oct 2017

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2018,47, 28-52
Article type
Tutorial Review

Fluorogenic reaction-based prodrug conjugates as targeted cancer theranostics

M. H. Lee, A. Sharma, M. J. Chang, J. Lee, S. Son, J. L. Sessler, C. Kang and J. S. Kim, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2018, 47, 28 DOI: 10.1039/C7CS00557A

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