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Issue 20, 2016
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Three-dimensional macro-structures of two-dimensional nanomaterials

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If two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are ever to be utilized as components of practical, macroscopic devices on a large scale, there is a complementary need to controllably assemble these 2D building blocks into more sophisticated and hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) architectures. Such a capability is key to design and build complex, functional devices with tailored properties. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various experimental strategies currently used to fabricate the 3D macro-structures of 2D nanomaterials. Additionally, various approaches for the decoration of the 3D macro-structures with organic molecules, polymers, and inorganic materials are reviewed. Finally, we discuss the applications of 3D macro-structures, especially in the areas of energy, environment, sensing, and electronics, and describe the existing challenges and the outlook for this fast emerging field.

Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional macro-structures of two-dimensional nanomaterials

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Article information

16 Mar 2016
First published
27 Jul 2016

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2016,45, 5541-5588
Article type
Review Article

Three-dimensional macro-structures of two-dimensional nanomaterials

K. Shehzad, Y. Xu, C. Gao and X. Duan, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2016, 45, 5541
DOI: 10.1039/C6CS00218H

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