Design strategies of fluorescent probes for selective detection among biothiols
Simple thiol derivatives, such as cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH), play key roles in biological processes, and the fluorescent probes to detect such thiols in vivo selectively with high sensitivity and fast response times are critical for understanding their numerous functions. However, the similar structures and reactivities of these thiols pose considerable challenges to the development of such probes. This review focuses on various strategies for the design of fluorescent probes for the selective detection of biothiols. We classify the fluorescent probes for discrimination among biothiols according to reaction types between the probes and thiols such as cyclization with aldehydes, conjugate addition–cyclization with acrylates, native chemical ligation, and aromatic substitution-rearrangement.