Electrosprayed nanoparticles and electrospun nanofibers based on natural materials: applications in tissue regeneration, drug delivery and pharmaceuticals
Nanotechnology refers to the fabrication, characterization, and application of substances in nanometer scale dimensions for various ends. The influence of nanotechnology on the healthcare industry is substantial, particularly in the areas of disease diagnosis and treatment. Recent investigations in nanotechnology for drug delivery and tissue engineering have delivered high-impact contributions in translational research, with associated pharmaceutical products and applications. Over the past decade, the synthesis of nanofibers or nanoparticles via electrostatic spinning or spraying, respectively, has emerged as an important nanostructuring methodology. This is due to both the versatility of the electrospinning/electrospraying process and the ensuing control of nanofiber/nanoparticle surface parameters. Electrosprayed nanoparticles and electrospun nanofibers are both employed as natural or synthetic carriers for the delivery of entrapped drugs, growth factors, health supplements, vitamins, and so on. The role of nanofiber/nanoparticle carriers is substantiated by the programmed, tailored, or targeted release of their contents in the guise of tissue engineering scaffolds or medical devices for drug delivery. This review focuses on the nanoformulation of natural materials via the electrospraying or electrospinning of nanoparticles or nanofibers for tissue engineering or drug delivery/pharmaceutical purposes. Here, we classify the natural materials with respect to their animal/plant origin and macrocyclic, small molecule or herbal active constituents, and further categorize the materials according to their proteinaceous or saccharide nature.