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Issue 16, 2014
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Structuring of metal–organic frameworks at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale

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The assembly of metal ions with organic ligands through the formation of coordination bonds gives crystalline framework materials, known as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), which recently emerged as a new class of porous materials. Besides the structural designability of MOFs at the molecular length scale, the researchers in this field very recently made important advances in creating more complex architectures at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale, in which MOF nanocrystals are used as building units to construct higher-order superstructures. The structuring of MOFs in such a hierarchical order certainly opens a new opportunity to improve the material performance via design of the physical form rather than altering the chemical component. This review highlights these superstructures and their applications by categorizing them into four dimensionalities, zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures. Because the key issue for structuring of MOFs is to spatially control the nucleation process in desired locations, this review conceptually categorizes the available synthetic methodologies from the viewpoint of the reaction system.

Graphical abstract: Structuring of metal–organic frameworks at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale

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Article information

09 Mar 2014
First published
09 May 2014

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2014,43, 5700-5734
Article type
Review Article
Author version available

Structuring of metal–organic frameworks at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale

S. Furukawa, J. Reboul, S. Diring, K. Sumida and S. Kitagawa, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2014, 43, 5700
DOI: 10.1039/C4CS00106K

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