Ordered mesoporous inorganic non-oxide materials attract increasing interest due to their plenty of unique properties and functionalities and potential applications. Lots of achievements have been made on their synthesis and structural characterization, especially in the last five years. In this critical review, the ordered mesoporous non-oxide materials are categorized by compositions, including non-oxide ceramics, metal chalcogenides, metal nitrides, carbides and fluorides, and systematically summarized on the basis of their synthesis approaches and mechanisms, as well as properties. Two synthesis routes such as hard-templating (nanocasting) and soft-templating (surfactant assembly) routes are demonstrated. The principal issues in the nanocasting synthesis including the template composition and mesostructure, pore surface chemistry, precursor selection, processing and template removal are emphatically described. A great number of successful cases from the soft-templating method are focused on the surfactant liquid-crystal mesophases to synthesize mesostructured metal chalcogenide composites and the inorganic-block-organic copolymer self-assembly to obtain non-oxide ceramics (296 references).
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