Core level photoelectron spectroscopy for polymer and catalyst characterisation
Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis or ESCA is a powerful tool for the characterisation of chemical species at surfaces. ESCA can therefore play a major role in the study of heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes. In the polymer field, more recently an increase in sensitivity combined with high spectral resolution has revealed details on the chemical environment around the probed atom. Information on nearest and next-nearest neighbours, sometimes even including conformational information, has become accessible. In catalysis the valence state of the metal centre can be estimated, and charge–binding energy relations can be used to establish charge–(catalytic) performance relations.