Physico-chemical treatment methods for the removal of microcystins (cyanobacterial hepatotoxins) from potable waters
The incidence of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters, including drinking water reservoirs, has increased over the past few decades due to rising nutrient levels. Microcystins are hepatotoxins released from cyanobacteria and have been responsible for the death of humans as well as domestic and wild animals. Microcystins are chemically very stable and many processes have only limited efficacy in removing them. In this paper we review a range of water treatment methods which have been applied to removing microcystins from potable waters.