Energy conversion based on superhydrophobic surfaces†
Covering about 70% of the earth's surface, water contains considerable energy that remains unexploited. Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) possess excellent water repellency, and energy conversion based on SHSs has opened up a new avenue for efficient collection and utilization of water energy. Therefore, it is of great significance to efficiently prepare SHSs and apply them for energy conversion in different fields. In this review, we first summarize the fabrication methods of SHSs, and then provide an overview of the energy conversion forms based on SHSs. Finally, the related applications corresponding to the energy conversion forms are introduced, including renewable energy collection and utilization, wearable device design, use of liquid sensors, surface cooling and heat dissipation, self-propelled devices, droplet manipulation and lab-on-a-chip devices; and their challenges and future perspectives are highlighted.