Bulk and grain boundary Li-diffusion in dense LiMn2O4 pellets by means of isotope exchange and ToF-SIMS analysis
Lithium diffusion in LiMn2O4 pellets is studied by means of isotope exchange and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). A 6Li-enriched film deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on a dense LiMn2O4 pellet with natural abundance of lithium isotopes is used to study the tracer diffusion of lithium. The measured profiles are analyzed by numerical models describing the 6Li tracer diffusion from the film into the pellet. Experiments in the Harrison type B regime of diffusion kinetics allow for the distinction and simultaneous determination of bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients. Changing the experimental conditions to reach Harrison type A behavior yields effective diffusion coefficients for lithium tracer diffusion in LiMn2O4. Activation energies for bulk and grain boundary diffusion were obtained from experiments at different temperatures. Our values are critically compared to previous studies.