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Issue 38, 2018
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Systematic analysis of electron energy-loss near-edge structures in Li-ion battery materials

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Abstract

Electrical conductivity, state of charge and chemical stability of Li-ion battery materials all depend on the electronic states of their component atoms, and tools for measuring these reliably are needed for advanced materials analysis and design. Here we report a systematic investigation of electron energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNES) of Li-K and O-K edges for ten representative Li-ion battery electrodes and solid-state electrolytes obtained by performing transmission electron microscopy with a Wien-filter monochromator-equipped microscope. While the peaks of Li-K edges are positioned at about 62 eV for most of the materials examined, the peak positions of O-K edges vary within a range of about 530 to 540 eV, and the peaks can be categorised into three groups based on their characteristic edge shapes: (i) double peaks, (ii) single sharp peaks, and (iii) single broad peaks. The double peaks of group (i) are attributable to the d0 electronic configuration of their transition metal ions bonded to O atoms. The origin of the different peak shapes of groups (ii) and (iii) is more subtle but insights are gained using density functional theory methods to simulate O-K ELNES edges of group (ii) material LiCoO2 and group (iii) material LiFePO4. Comparison of their densities of states reveals that in LiCoO2 the Co–O hybrid orbitals are separated from Li–O hybrid orbitals, resulting in a sharp peak in the O-K edge, while Fe–O, Li–O and P–O hybrid orbitals in LiFePO4 partially overlap each other and produce a broad peak.

Graphical abstract: Systematic analysis of electron energy-loss near-edge structures in Li-ion battery materials

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Publication details

The article was received on 29 May 2018, accepted on 29 Aug 2018 and first published on 24 Sep 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8CP03390K
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018,20, 25052-25061
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Systematic analysis of electron energy-loss near-edge structures in Li-ion battery materials

    M. Saitoh, X. Gao, T. Ogawa, Y. H. Ikuhara, S. Kobayashi, C. A. J. Fisher, A. Kuwabara and Y. Ikuhara, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 25052
    DOI: 10.1039/C8CP03390K

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      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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