Identifying the charge generation dynamics in Cs+-based triple cation mixed perovskite solar cells†
Triple cation based perovskite solar cells offer enhanced moisture tolerance and stability compared to mixed perovskites. Slight substitution of methyl ammonium or formamidinium cation by cesium (Cs+), was also reported to eliminate halide segregation due to its smaller size. To elucidate the device kinetics and understand the role of the Cs, we undertook different modes of scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the incorporation of the Cs cation increases the contact potential difference (CPD), this CPD further increases when Spiro-OMeTAD is used as a hole transport material. The current at the nanoscale level shows improvement with Cs inclusion and further enhancement by the Spiro-OMeTAD deposition, studied under light illumination, which supports the high photocurrent density obtained from the cells. EIS demonstrates that in a triple cation environment, reduced carrier recombination at the TiO2/perovskite interface was also obtained which in turn allow us to achieve a higher Voc value.