Enhancement in the electrochemical performance of zirconium/phosphate bi-functional coatings on LiNi0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 by the removal of Li residuals†
The effect of bi-functional coatings consisting of Zr and phosphate (P) on the electrochemical performance of Li1.0Ni0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 (NCM) has been investigated. The presence of various types of Zr and P compounds such as oxides (ZrO2 and Li2ZrO3) and phosphates (Zr2P2O9, ZrP2O7 and LiZr2(PO4)3) in the coating was confirmed by experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. When the NCM samples were coated with the Zr/P hybrid material, the cycle retention and the amount of removed Li residuals (LiOH, Li2CO3) were enhanced by the synergistic effect from Zr and P. The NCM sample coated with a Zr/P layer with a Zr/P ratio of 1 : 1 exhibited an increase in the initial capacity (209.3 mA h g−1) compared to the pristine sample (207.4 mA h g−1) at 0.1C, owing to the formation of the coating layer. The capacity retention of the Zr/P coated sample (92.4% at the 50th cycle) was also improved compared to that of the pristine NCM sample (90.6% at the 50th cycle). Moreover, the amount of Li residuals in the Zr/P coated NCM sample was greatly reduced from 3693 ppm (pristine NCM) to 2525 ppm (Zr/P = 5 : 5).