Graphene oxide–Li+@C60 donor–acceptor composites for photoenergy conversion†
An ionic endohedral metallofullerene (Li+@C60) with mild hydrophilic nature was combined with graphene oxide (GO) to construct a donor–acceptor composite in neat water. The resulting composite was characterised by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Theoretical calculations (DFT at the B3LYP/6-31(d) level) were also utilized to gain further insight into the composite formation. As detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoexcitation of the GO–Li+@C60 composite results in electron transfer from GO to the triplet excited state of Li+@C60, leading to photocurrent generation at the OTE/SnO2 electrode.