In operando monitoring of the state of charge and species distribution in zinc air batteries using X-ray tomography and model-based simulations†
A novel combination of in operando X-ray tomography and model-based analysis of zinc air batteries is introduced. Using this approach the correlation between the three-dimensional morphological properties of the electrode – on the one hand – and the electrochemical properties of the battery – on the other hand is revealed. In detail, chemical dissolution of zinc particles and the electrode volume were investigated non-destructively during battery operation by X-ray tomography (applying a spatial resolution of 9 μm), while simulation yielded cell potentials of each electrode and allows for the prediction of long-term operation behavior. Furthermore, the analysis of individual zinc particles revealed an electrochemical dissolution process that can be explained using an adapted shrinking-core model.