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Issue 20, 2011
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Direct electro-deposition of graphene from aqueous suspensions

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We describe the direct electro-chemical reduction of graphene oxide to graphene from aqueous suspension by applying reduction voltages exceeding −1.0 to −1.2 V. The conductivity of the deposition medium is of crucial importance and only values between 4–25 mS cm−1 result in deposition. Above 25 mS cm−1 the suspension de-stabilises while conductivities below 4 mS cm−1 do not show a measurable deposition rate. Furthermore, we show that deposition can be carried out over a wide pH region ranging from 1.5 to 12.5. The electro-deposition process is characterised in terms of electro-chemical methods including cyclic voltammetry, quartz crystal microbalance, impedance spectroscopy, constant amperometry and potentiometric titrations, while the deposits are analysed viaRaman spectroscopy, infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The determined oxygen contents are similar to those of chemically reduced graphene oxide, and the conductivity of the deposits was found to be ∼20 S cm−1.

Graphical abstract: Direct electro-deposition of graphene from aqueous suspensions

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Supplementary files

Article information

20 Jan 2011
04 Mar 2011
First published
08 Apr 2011

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011,13, 9187-9193
Article type

Direct electro-deposition of graphene from aqueous suspensions

M. Hilder, B. Winther-Jensen, D. Li, M. Forsyth and D. R. MacFarlane, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 9187
DOI: 10.1039/C1CP20173E

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