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Issue 3, 2011
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Selective adsorption and chiral amplification of amino acids in vermiculite clay-implications for the origin of biochirality

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Abstract

Smectite clays are hydrated layer silicates that, like micas, occur naturally in abundance. Importantly, they have readily modifiable interlayer spaces that provide excellent sites for nanochemistry. Vermiculite is one such smectite clay and in the presence of small chain-length alkyl-NH3Cl ions forms sensitive, 1-D ordered model clay systems with expandable nano-pore inter-layer regions. These inter-layers readily adsorb organic molecules. n-Propyl NH3Cl vermiculite clay gels were used to determine the adsorption of alanine, lysine and histidine by chiral HPLC. The results show that during reaction with fresh vermiculite interlayers, significant chiral enrichment of either L- and D-enantiomers occurs depending on the amino acid. Chiral enrichment of the supernatant solutions is up to about 1% per pass. In contrast, addition to clay interlayers already reacted with amino acid solutions resulted in little or no change in D/L ratio during the time of the experiment. Adsorption of small amounts of amphiphilic organic molecules in clay inter-layers is known to produce Layer-by-Layer or Langmuir–Blodgett films. Moreover atomistic simulations show that self-organization of organic species in clay interlayers is important. These non-centrosymmetric, chirally active nanofilms may cause clays to act subsequently as chiral amplifiers, concentrating organic material from dilute solution and having different adsorption energetics for D- and L-enantiomers. The additional role of clays in RNA oligomerization already postulated by Ferris and others, together with the need for the organization of amphiphilic molecules and lipids noted by Szostak and others, suggests that such chiral separation by clays in lagoonal environments at normal biological temperatures might also have played a significant role in the origin of biochirality.

Graphical abstract: Selective adsorption and chiral amplification of amino acids in vermiculite clay-implications for the origin of biochirality

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Article information


Submitted
01 Aug 2010
Accepted
24 Sep 2010
First published
28 Oct 2010

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011,13, 831-838
Article type
Paper

Selective adsorption and chiral amplification of amino acids in vermiculite clay-implications for the origin of biochirality

D. G. Fraser, D. Fitz, T. Jakschitz and B. M. Rode, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 831
DOI: 10.1039/C0CP01388A

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