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Issue 2, 2008
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Control of the site and potential of reduction and oxidation processes in π-expanded quinoxalinoporphyrins

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Abstract

Quinoxalino[2,3-b′]porphyrins are π-expanded porphyrins, having a quinoxaline fused to a β,β′-pyrrolic position of the porphyrin. They are used as components in systems proposed as ‘molecular wires’. Knowledge of their redox properties is of value in the design of electron- or hole-conduction systems. In particular, the location of the charge density in the radical anions of quinoxalinoporphyrins can be modulated by peripheral functionalization. New theoretical treatments of electrochemical potentials are developed that identify the site of reduction in both the anions and the dianions of 33 quinoxalinoporphyrins. These molecules include free-base and metallated macrocycles substituted on the quinoxaline with electron-withdrawing groups (NO2, Cl, Br) and/or electron-donating groups (NH2, OCH3). Spectroelectrochemistry, density-functional theory calculations, and substituent-parameter models are used to verify the analysis. Five distinct patterns are observed for the locations of the first and second reductions; some of these patterns involve delocalized charges. Nitroquinoxalinoporphyrins with the nitro groups at the 5- and 6-quinoxaline positions are found to have quite different properties owing to distortions caused by peri interactions that force the nitro group of the 5-nitro regioisomer out of conjugation. Charge localization on the nitroquinoxaline fragment is found for some molecules, and this is attributed to ion-pairing with the 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate electrolyte used, leading to the verified prediction that electron-paramagnetic resonance spectra of these molecules taken without the electrolyte yield delocalized anions. These properties enable the control of conduction through molecular wires synthesised from quinoxalinoporphyrins.

Graphical abstract: Control of the site and potential of reduction and oxidation processes in π-expanded quinoxalinoporphyrins

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
24 Jul 2007
Accepted
15 Oct 2007
First published
14 Nov 2007

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2008,10, 268-280
Article type
Paper

Control of the site and potential of reduction and oxidation processes in π-expanded quinoxalinoporphyrins

P. J. Sintic, W. E, Z. Ou, J. Shao, J. A. McDonald, Z. Cai, K. M. Kadish, M. J. Crossley and J. R. Reimers, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2008, 10, 268
DOI: 10.1039/B711320J

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