Particle-surface capillary forces with disjoining pressure
A new, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based experimental setup for the continuous acquisition of friction force data as a function of humidity has been developed. The current model of interactions between wet contacts under the influence of capillary effects, has been amended to include a vertical component due to the disjoining pressure and takes into account the influence of liquid films adsorbed on the surface. This is a ‘switching’ model, i.e. the contact between nanometer-sized sphere and a flat surface can exist in two distinct states due to capillary bridge formation/destruction as the humidity is varied. The model has been qualitatively verified on samples of differing wettability produced by UV-ozone treatment of polystyrene (PS). Results of AFM analysis of the friction vs. vapor pressure curves collected from the surface are presented. Correlation between important surface properties such as wettability, adsorption, and contact angle and friction force under varying humidity were found and discussed.