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Issue 31, 2016
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Rational design of the solid-state synthesis of materials based on poly-aromatic molecular complexes

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Abstract

The possibility of exploiting a thermally-induced solid-state reaction to obtain the formation of a fluorene and TCNQ molecular complex was proposed by some of us (Kumar et al., Cryst. Growth Des., 2009, 9(8), 3396–3404). In this paper, we generalize and rationalize the approach to other charge transfer (CT) molecular complexes with naphthalene and anthracene, changing the size of the donor moiety to propose a general approach for the preparation of this class of materials by exploiting the solid-state synthesis method. Moreover, the kinetic features of the solid state reactions were fully elucidated by Raman spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis (in situ Raman/XRPD), exploiting the Avrami equation in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions; rate constants, reaction orders and activation energies were obtained. All the three tested solid-state charge transfer (SS-CT) reactions obeyed a general rule, whereby the most apt reaction temperature was predicted. Finally, a method based on principal component analysis (PCA) for a fast kinetic analysis of in situ XRD synchrotron data was successfully developed, employing a formalism suitable for the analysis of non-isothermal reaction data, thus allowing a high throughput approach for the fast screening of the kinetics of parent reactions. PCA analysis was exploited as an alternative technique to obtain kinetic information in a faster and more efficient way, which can be used for online monitoring and/or in all those cases where Rietveld analysis is not feasible.

Graphical abstract: Rational design of the solid-state synthesis of materials based on poly-aromatic molecular complexes

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Publication details

The article was received on 22 Apr 2016, accepted on 19 Jun 2016 and first published on 20 Jun 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6CE00936K
CrystEngComm, 2016,18, 5930-5939

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    Rational design of the solid-state synthesis of materials based on poly-aromatic molecular complexes

    L. Palin, E. Conterosito, R. Caliandro, E. Boccaleri, G. Croce, S. Kumar, W. van Beek and M. Milanesio, CrystEngComm, 2016, 18, 5930
    DOI: 10.1039/C6CE00936K

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