Recent emergence of photon upconversion based on triplet energy migration in molecular assemblies
An emerging field of triplet energy migration-based photon upconversion (TEM-UC) is reviewed. Highly efficient photon upconversion has been realized in a wide range of chromophore assemblies, such as non-solvent liquids, ionic liquids, amorphous solids, gels, supramolecular assemblies, molecular crystals, and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). The control over their assembly structures allows for unexpected air-stability and maximum upconversion quantum yield at weak solar irradiance that has never been achieved by the conventional molecular diffusion-based mechanism. The introduction of the “self-assembly” concept offers a new perspective in photon upconversion research and triplet exciton science, which show promise for numerous applications ranging from solar energy conversion to chemical biology.