Nanomedicine – a promising therapy for hematological malignancies
Hematological tumors are a group of diseases defined as the clonal proliferation of blood-forming cells. In recent years, incidences of hematological malignancies have increased. Traditional methods of diagnosing hematological tumors are primarily based on observing morphological features under light microscopy, and molecular diagnostics and immunological indicators are powerful auxiliary diagnostic methods. However, traditional methods cannot efficiently identify tumor markers and limit the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis. Although treatment methods have been improved continuously, chemotherapy remains a primary technique for the treatment of hematological tumors. Traditional chemotherapy exhibits poor drug selectivity and lacks good biocompatibility and pharmacokinetic properties. The therapeutic effect is not ideal and the risk of toxic side effects is high. The nanosize and surface charge properties of nanodrugs are effective in improving drug delivery efficiency. The high load and rich surface modification methods of nanomaterials provide various possibilities for improving the biocompatibility and pharmacokinetics of drugs, as well as the targeting of drugs. In addition, a nanomedicine loading platform can load multiple drugs simultaneously and design the optimal proportion of combined drug schemes, which can improve the efficacy of drugs and reduce the occurrence of drug resistance. With their unique physical and chemical properties and biological characteristics, the application of nanoparticles in the diagnosis and treatment of hematological tumors has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the application of various types of nanostructures for the diagnosis and treatment of hematological malignancies, investigate the advantages of nanomedicine compared with the traditional diagnosis and treatment of hematological tumors, and discuss their biological security and application prospects.