Promotion of the osteogenic activity of an antibacterial polyaniline coating by electrical stimulation †
Electrical stimulation (ES) exhibits a positive role in promoting the cell activity of osteoblasts. Conducting polymers have the advantages of biocompatibility, good environmental stability and easy synthesis, which have been widely used as charge carriers for electrical stimulation; moreover, considering clinical applications, biomaterial-related infection is an important issue that needs to be solved. Thus, conducting polymers with both antibacterial and osteogenic properties are highly demanded for effect repair. However, it remains a challenge to combine these two characteristics efficiently in a simple way. Herein, an Ag-loaded poly(amide-amine) dendrimer was prepared by a simple chemical reduction procedure, which acted as a dopant for the polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) on biomedical titanium (Ti) sheets. The obtained PANI coating showed outstanding antibacterial properties against Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) microbes with a 1000-fold increase when compared with that of pure Ti. In addition, note that the polymer coating together with ES facilitated the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and intracellular calcium content of the cells showed a 19.09% and 24.02% increase, respectively, when compared with the case of electrically stimulated Ti after 12 days. Moreover, the existence of PAMAM facilitated mineralization. The strategy developed herein is simple and can be easily manipulated, which shows potential applications in the coating of implants for hard tissue repair.