Fabricating an intelligent cell-like nano-prodrug via hierarchical self-assembly based on the DNA skeleton for suppressing lung metastasis of breast cancer†
Cancer metastasis is a major cause of high mortality in breast cancer. Despite the progress achieved in nanomaterial-based treatments, the cure rate remains unsatisfactory, owing to their poor biocompatibility and non-specific recognition. Inspired by the cell-mimetic strategy, in this work, we fabricated an intelligent cell-like nano-prodrug (Dox-MPK@MDL) for lung metastasis of breast cancer. Specifically, a DNA tetrahedron dendrimer was selected to act as a rigid internal cytoskeleton, and then sequentially coated with a liposome and macrophage membrane to form cell-like Dox-MPK@MDL via hierarchical self-assembly. Here, it should be noted that pH-sensitive Dox-MPK prodrugs were synthesized and inserted into the DNA-based cytoskeleton (the Dox group is an intercalator of double stranded DNA) in advance for the next anti-metastatic therapy. Our results show that Dox-MPK@MDL specifically targeted the sites of lung metastasis via the biomimetic metastasis-homing effects and intelligently triggered Dox release at the metastatic cancer cells, thereby leading to the significant inhibition of lung metastasis. All these features help to enhance the anti-metastatic therapy efficiency of Dox while maximally reducing side-effects.