Graphene family nanomaterials for application in cancer combination photothermal therapy
Combining hyperthermia with other therapies holds a great potential for improving cancer treatment. In this approach, the increase in the body temperature can exert a therapeutic effect on cells and/or enhance the effectiveness of anticancer agents. However, the conventional methodologies available to induce hyperthermia cannot confine a high temperature increase to the tumor-site while maintaining healthy tissues unexposed and ensuring minimal invasiveness. To overcome these limitations, combination photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by graphene family nanomaterials (GFN) has been showing promising results. Such is owed to the ability of GFN to accumulate at the tumor site and convert near infrared light into heat, enabling a hyperthermia with a high spatial-temporal resolution. Furthermore, GFN can also incorporate different therapeutic agents on their structure for delivery purposes to cancer cells. In this way, the combination PTT mediated by GFN can result in an improved therapeutic effect. In this review, the combination of GFN mediated PTT with chemo-, photodynamic-, gene-, radio-, and immuno-therapies is examined. Furthermore, the main parameters that influence these types of combination approaches are also analyzed, with emphasis on the photothermal potential of GFN and on the vascular and cellular effects produced by the temperature increase mediated by GFN.