Response of macrophages and neural cells in contact with reduced graphene oxide microfibers
Graphene-based materials are revealing a great promise for biomedical applications and demonstrating attractiveness for neural repair. In the context of neural tissue damage, the dialogue between neural and immune cells appears critical for driving regeneration, thus making the understanding of their relations pivotal. Herein, the acute response of RAW-264.7 macrophages on nanostructured reduced graphene oxide (rGO) microfibers has been evaluated through the analysis of cell parameters including proliferation, viability, intracellular content of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell size and complexity. The influence of the direct contact of rGO microfibers on their polarization towards M1 and M2 phenotypes has been studied by analyses of both M1 (CD80) and M2 (CD163) markers and the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Finally, the capability of these rGO microfibers to regulate neural stem cell differentiation has been also evaluated. Findings reveal that rGO microfibers inhibit the proliferation of RAW-264.7 macrophages without affecting their viability and cell cycle profiles. The presence of M1 and M2 macrophages on these microfibers was confirmed after 24 and 48 h, respectively, accompanied by a decrease in TNF-α and an increase in IL-6 cytokine secretion. These rGO microfibers were also able to support the formation of a highly interconnected neural culture composed of both neurons (map2+ cells) and glial cells (vimentin+ cells). These findings encourage further investigation of these microfibers as attractive biomaterials to interact with immune and neural cells, attempting to support wound healing and tissue repair after implantation.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Biomaterial Interactions with the Immune System