Harnessing chondroitin sulphate in composite scaffolds to direct progenitor and stem cell function for tissue repair
The development of bioscaffolds that incorporate chondroitin sulphate (CS) and their applications with progenitor and stem cells in cartilage, bone, cornea, skin, and neural repair are reviewed. CS is a heterogeneous structure due to the organisation of multiple CS disaccharide sulphation motifs, giving rise to a vast range of CS chain structures, and hence the wide range of biological activity. The incorporation of this biological molecule represents a significant advance in bioscaffold design and performance in tissue repair strategies. The intrinsic stem-cell directive properties of CS are covered in the context of tissue development, and the differing CS disaccharide motifs, referred to as the ‘glyco-code’. These structural motifs contribute to stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the scaffold environment and improve outcomes in terms of tissue repair or regeneration worthy of future research.