Presentation modality of glycoconjugates modulates dendritic cell phenotype
The comparative dendritic cell (DC) response to glycoconjugates presented in soluble, phagocytosable, or non-phagocytosable display modalities is poorly understood. This is particularly problematic, as the probing of immobilized glycans presented on the surface of microarrays is a common screen for potential candidates for glycan-based therapeutics. However, the assumption that carbohydrate–protein interactions on a flat surface can be translatable to development of efficacious therapies, such as vaccines, which are delivered in soluble or phagocytosable particles, has not been validated. Thus, a preliminary investigation was performed in which mannose or glucose was conjugated to cationized bovine serum albumin and presented to DCs in soluble, phagocytosable, or non-phagocytosable display modalities. The functional DC response to the glycoconjugates was assessed via a high throughput assay. Dendritic cell phenotypic outcomes were placed into a multivariate, general linear model (GLM) and shown to be statistically different amongst display modalities when comparing similar surface areas. The GLM showed that glycoconjugates that were adsorbed to wells were the most pro-inflammatory while soluble conjugates were the least. DC interactions with mannose conjugates were found to be calcium dependent and could be inhibited via anti-DC-SIGN antibodies. The results of this study aim to resolve conflicts in reports from multiple laboratories showing differential DC profiles in response to similar, if not identical, ligands delivered via different modalities. Additionally, this study begins to bridge the gap between microarray binding data and functional cell responses by highlighting the phenotypes induced from adsorbed glycoconjugates as compared to those in solution or displayed on microparticles.
- This article is part of the themed collection: In celebration of Michael Sefton’s 65th birthday