Amphiphilic random copolymer vesicle induces differentiation of mouse C2C12 myoblasts†
Herein we report that vesicular assembly from a simple non-ionic amphiphilic random copolymer initiates extremely efficient myotube formation from C2C12 myoblast cells in standard growth media lacking horse serum. Control experiments with structurally related polymers and a small molecule suggest the absolute necessity of the vesicular assembly as well as the particular hydrophilic functionality in mediating such high yielding muscle cell generation. The LDH assay indicates that the membrane integrity is retained during cell–cell fusion. Expression of various myogenic factors such as MyoD, myogenin and P-21 has been examined in the presence of the polymersome and control molecules to rationalize this serendipitous discovery.