Undiluted human whole blood uric acid detection using a graphitized mesoporous carbon modified electrode: a potential tool for clinical point-of-care uric acid diagnosis
Direct sensing of uric acid (UA) in an undiluted whole blood sample is reported here taking human whole blood as an analyte and a self-supporting electrolyte. Among various solid electrodes (Pt, Au, GCE, and GCE/Nafion) and carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanofibers, graphene oxide, graphite nanopowder, graphitized mesoporous carbon (GMC), single-walled carbon nanotubes, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes) tested, a GMC-modified glassy carbon electrode, designated as GCE/GMC, showed a remarkable response towards direct electrochemical oxidation of blood uric acid at ∼0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl, unlike the poor and/or feeble current signals with the other unmodified and modified electrodes. It is plausible that the mesoporous nature of the GMC favours the formation of a blood–GMC bio-corona through internalization and provides straight access to blood-matrixed uric acid. Furthermore, the effects of the scan rate and interference with various biochemicals on the GCE/GMC were analysed. The electrochemical oxidation reaction is found to be diffusion controlled in nature and there is no interference from common biochemicals like ascorbic acid, glucose, tryptophan, H2O2, xanthine, hypoxanthine, cysteine, nitrate, nitrite, and sulfide in blood. Real blood UA sample analysis was demonstrated with comparable UA analysis results from the clinical measurement.