Design of a wearable device for real-time screening of urinary tract infection and kidney disease based on smartphone†
In this study, we developed a novel wearable and low-cost device for qualitative screening of glucose (GLU), leukocytes (LEU), and nitrite (NIT) and for semi-quantitative analysis of blood (BLD) and proteins (PRO) in the urine samples. The device can be attached to a diaper, and the results can be read by an app. The main functions of the device can be divided into sample collection, valve closing, and pad saturation; the recorded times for valve closing and pad saturation at four corners and pad saturation at the central parts are pseudo-medians (Hodges–Lehmann estimator) of 3.55 (95% WCI, 3.45–3.72), 6.5 (95% WCI, 6–7), and 6 (95% WCI, 5.5–6.5) minutes, respectively. The RGB values in the reagent pads remain stable from 20 min to 480 min, which satisfies the requirement of regular diaper-wearing time. Pre-diagnostic results indicate high accuracy with good accuracy for the app recognition of five biomarkers in the urine samples, which makes it a promising tool for screening diseases, especially for the elderly healthcare.