Electrochemical and surface plasmon insulin assays on clinical samples
Diabetes is a complex immune disorder that requires extensive medical care beyond glycemic control. Recently, the prevalence of diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes (T1D), has significantly increased from 5% to 10%, and this has affected the health-associated complication incidences in children and adults. The 2012 statistics by the American Diabetes Association reported that 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) had diabetes, and 86 million Americans (age ≥20 years, an increase from 79 million in 2010) had prediabetes. Personalized glucometers allow diabetes management by easy monitoring of the high millimolar blood glucose levels. In contrast, non-glucose diabetes biomarkers, which have gained considerable attention for early prediction and provide insights about diabetes metabolic pathways, are difficult to measure because of their ultra-low levels in blood. Similarly, insulin pumps, sensors, and insulin monitoring systems are of considerable biomedical significance due to their ever-increasing need for managing diabetic, prediabetic, and pancreatic disorders. Our laboratory focuses on developing electrochemical immunosensors and surface plasmon microarrays for minimally invasive insulin measurements in clinical sample matrices. By utilizing antibodies or aptamers as the insulin-selective biorecognition elements in combination with nanomaterials, we demonstrated a series of selective and clinically sensitive electrochemical and surface plasmon immunoassays. This review provides an overview of different electrochemical and surface plasmon immunoassays for insulin. Considering the paramount importance of diabetes diagnosis, treatment, and management and insulin pumps and monitoring devices with focus on both T1D (insulin-deficient condition) and type 2 diabetes (insulin-resistant condition), this review on insulin bioassays is timely and significant.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles