“One-drop-of-blood” electroanalysis of lead levels in blood using a foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine–formaldehyde and disposable screen-printed electrodes†
A foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine–formaldehyde (mPMF) was synthesized and further deposited on disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the electroanalysis of Pb2+ ions in blood. Investigations indicate that the prepared mPMF is ultrastable in water, showing a mesoporous structure and an amine-rich composition, as characterized by electronic microscopy images and IR spectra. Importantly, it possesses a highly-selective chelating ability and a powerful absorbent capacity for Pb2+ ions. By way of solid-state PbCl2 voltammetry, the mPMF-modified sensor could allow for the detection of Pb2+ ions in one drop of blood with a high detection selectivity, sensitivity (down to about 0.10 μg L−1 Pb2+ ions) and reproducibility. Such a simple “one-drop-of-blood” electroanalysis method equipped with disposable SPEs and a portable electrochemical transducer can be tailored for the field-deployable or on-site monitoring of blood Pb2+ levels in the clinical laboratory.