SERS-based monitoring of the intracellular pH in endothelial cells: the influence of the extracellular environment and tumour necrosis factor-α
The intracellular pH plays an important role in various cellular processes. In this work, we describe a method for monitoring of the intracellular pH in endothelial cells by using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) anchored to gold nanoparticles as pH-sensitive probes. Using the Raman microimaging technique, we analysed changes in intracellular pH induced by buffers with acid or alkaline pH, as well as in endothelial inflammation induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα). The targeted nanosensor enabled spatial pH measurements revealing distinct changes of the intracellular pH in endosomal compartments of the endothelium. Altogether, SERS-based analysis of intracellular pH proves to be a promising technique for a better understanding of intracellular pH regulation in various subcellular compartments.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Optical Diagnosis (2014)