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Issue 14, 2013
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Non-invasive analysis of hormonal variations and effect of postmenopausal Vagifem treatment on women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy

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Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of applying high wavenumber (HW) confocal Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive assessment of menopause-related hormonal changes in the cervix as well as for determining the effect of Vagifem® treatment on postmenopausal women with atrophic cervix. A rapid HW confocal Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball lens fiber-optic Raman probe was utilized for in vivo cervical tissue Raman measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 164 in vivo HW Raman spectra (premenopausal (n = 104), postmenopausal-prevagifem (n = 34), postmenopausal-postvagifem (n = 26)) were measured from the normal cervix of 26 patients undergoing colposcopy. We established the biochemical basis of premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix using semiquantitative biomolecular modeling derived from Raman-active biochemicals (i.e., lipids, proteins and water) that play a critical role in HW Raman spectral changes associated with the menopausal process. The diagnostic algorithms developed based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one patient-out, cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivities of 88.5%, 91.2% and 88.5%, and specificities of 91.7%, 90.8% and 99.3%, respectively, for non-invasive in vivo discrimination among premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix. This work demonstrates for the first time that HW confocal Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with biomolecular modeling can be a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying hormone/menopause-related variations in the native squamous epithelium of normal cervix, as well as for assessing the effect of Vagifem treatment on postmenopausal atrophic cervix in vivo during clinical colposcopic inspections.

Graphical abstract: Non-invasive analysis of hormonal variations and effect of postmenopausal Vagifem treatment on women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy

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Publication details

The article was received on 16 Mar 2013, accepted on 10 May 2013 and first published on 10 May 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3AN00526G
Citation: Analyst, 2013,138, 4120-4128

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    Non-invasive analysis of hormonal variations and effect of postmenopausal Vagifem treatment on women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy

    S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. H. Low, A. Ilancheran and Z. Huang, Analyst, 2013, 138, 4120
    DOI: 10.1039/C3AN00526G

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