Electrochemical determination of silver in photographic solutions using fixed-volume single-use sensors
Electrochemical methods are described for the determination of silver ions in photographic processing solutions using a generic sensor design. The sensor consists of three electrodes (working, auxiliary and pseudo-reference) screen-printed with carbon ink. Silver can be measured between 100 µg l–1 and 5 g l–1 encompassing the concentrations of silver in the various stages of photoprocessing from fixer to effluent. Square-wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used for low and high silver concentrations, respectively.