Analysis of volatiles from oranges in good and bad condition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
The vapour from whole Navel oranges was examined by using headspace techniques followed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with the aim of distinguishing good, damaged and diseased fruit by chemical means. Low concentrations of limonene were detected in the headspace of undamaged fruit, but mechanical damage caused considerable increases in the concentration of limonene and volatile terpene peel-oil constituents. Diseased oranges affected by common Penicillium infections produced different headspace profiles, containing relatively high concentrations of acetaldehyde, simple alcohols and esters. The method was reproducible (relative standard deviation 1–2%) and 23 potential compounds of interest could be separated in a single run by using a column containing a thick film of polar stationary phase.