The levelized cost of electricity from perovskite photovoltaics†
The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is a techno-economic analysis that evaluates the cost potential of any electricity-producing technology. LCOE represents a powerful metric to compare the most efficient renewable resources in the framework of the energy transition. Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are an emerging technology with great potential to establish a leading position in the photovoltaic (PV) market, particularly in those regions that cannot rely on crystalline silicon manufacturing. However, like many emerging technologies, their positioning in the PV market is still quite speculative. Here, we revise the different models to evaluate the LCOE of PSCs, paying attention to the impact of performance, stability, and manufacturing costs. We consider the difference in performances from lab-record devices to modules fabricated in industrial production lines. We identify the key role of the degradation that is hindering the commercialization of PSCs and we analyze the manufacturing cost and the supply chain availability. From our analysis, we restricted the LCOE to 3–6 cents (USD) per kWh, which is competitive with the best of the mainstream silicon technologies (passivated emitter and rear contact, PERC). In conclusion, we highlight the future challenges to refine the LCOE calculations, including temperature effects.