Recent developments towards portable point-of-care diagnostic devices for pathogen detection
The rapid development of accurate and quick diagnostic tools for infectious diseases has made a massive impact in global health. POC devices for pathogen detection have primarily contributed to clinical management in various applications such as pathology, drug discovery and food safety. Diagnostic tests in isolated or remote areas were previously time-consuming, costly, and the methods were extensive and laborious. However, the new generation of miniaturized biosensor technologies aimed at POC testing resulted in a more sensitive, reliable, rapid and cost-effective detection process without needing sophisticated instruments. Among them, a few were developed as ready-to-use devices and are currently commercially available. In this review, we presented the most recent developments in diagnostic methods in pathogen detection and the improvements included in the detection steps in recent POCs for pathogen detection. We also discussed incorporating nanomaterials, microfluidics, lateral flow tests, screen-printed electrodes and smartphones into POC devices used in this area. The challenges and prospects of developing sample-to-results POC devices for pathogen detection were also discussed.