A MXene-derived redox homeostasis regulator perturbs the Nrf2 antioxidant program for reinforced sonodynamic therapy

Abstract

Ultrasound (US)-mediated sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has emerged as a spatiotemporally controllable therapeutic modality in combating cancer because of its high tissue-penetration depth and minimal invasiveness. However, the elevated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant program in cancer cells can serve as a chief reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification system to alleviate oxidative injury and promote tumorigenesis, and thus greatly antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of ROS-mediated anticancer therapies. Herein, we report that vanadium carbide MXene-derived carbon dots (PMQDs) can act as high-efficacy sonosensitizers to efficiently generate ROS upon US irradiation and simultaneously hinder the Nrf2 antioxidant program for enhanced sonodynamic therapy of cancer. These PMQDs show superior US-triggered ROS generating ability because of their efficient migration/separation of electron–hole pairs and narrow bandgap. Importantly, these PMQDs can serve as efficient redox homeostasis regulators to perturb the Nrf2 antioxidant mechanism and thus reduce its effects on ROS neutralization for enhanced SDT efficacy. Overall, the present study will not only provide a new paradigm to augment SDT by perturbing the Nrf2 antioxidant program, but also give valuable insights into developing high-efficacy MXene-derived nanoagents for cancer therapy.

Graphical abstract: A MXene-derived redox homeostasis regulator perturbs the Nrf2 antioxidant program for reinforced sonodynamic therapy

Supplementary files

Article information

Article type
Edge Article
Submitted
20 Dec 2021
Accepted
25 Apr 2022
First published
13 May 2022
This article is Open Access

All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry
Creative Commons BY-NC license

Chem. Sci., 2022, Advance Article

A MXene-derived redox homeostasis regulator perturbs the Nrf2 antioxidant program for reinforced sonodynamic therapy

H. Wang, X. Liu, X. Yan, J. Fan, D. Li, J. Ren and X. Qu, Chem. Sci., 2022, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D1SC07073H

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