Cooperativity as quantification and optimization paradigm for nuclear receptor modulators†
Nuclear Receptors (NRs) are highly relevant drug targets, for which small molecule modulation goes beyond a simple ligand/receptor interaction. NR–ligands modulate Protein–Protein Interactions (PPIs) with coregulator proteins. Here we bring forward a cooperativity mechanism for small molecule modulation of NR PPIs, using the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ), which describes NR–ligands as allosteric molecular glues. The cooperativity framework uses a thermodynamic model based on three-body binding events, to dissect and quantify reciprocal effects of NR–coregulator binding (KID) and NR–ligand binding (KIID), jointly recapitulated in the cooperativity factor (α) for each specific ternary ligand·NR·coregulator complex formation. These fundamental thermodynamic parameters allow for a conceptually new way of thinking about structure–activity-relationships for NR–ligands and can steer NR modulator discovery and optimization via a completely novel approach.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2022 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection