Preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2-TaOPO4 catalyst in 2-pentanol
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is one of the most important platform molecules and could be transformed into a variety of fuel additives and high value-added chemicals. Multiple catalyst systems have been developed for the conversion of carbohydrates to HMF, but there are still unavoidable problems, including high temperature and pressure, difficult recovery of solvent, corrosion of equipment, poor catalyst circulation, etc. Herein, a new magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2-TaOPO4 catalyst for the preparation of HMF from fructose in 2-pentanol was developed. The structures of the catalysts were characterized by FT-IR, TSM, EDS, SEM, XRD and VSM. The 2-pentanol solvent is not only conducive to the production of HMF, but also enables the reaction to be carried out at a lower pressure. The highest yield of HMF (85.4%) was obtained using 20 wt% catalyst under 10% substrate concentration (0.5 g of fructose) at 120 °C for 3 h. The catalysts can be easily separated by magnetism. The slight decrease in catalyst activity after 7 cycles was mainly due to the loss of catalyst during the cycle operation. Simultaneously, the total yield of HMF was 51.3% after scale-up to 15 g of fructose, showing the possible industrial application potential of this catalyst system.