A self-powered wearable brain–machine-interface system for ceasing action†
A self-powered wearable brain–machine-interface system with pulse detection and brain stimulation for ceasing action has been realized. The system is composed of (1) a power supply unit that employs a piezoelectric generator and converts the mechanical energy of human daily activities into electricity; (2) a neck pulse biosensor that allows continuous measurements of carotid pulse by using a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride film; (3) a data analysis module that enables a coordinated brain–machine-interface system to output brain stimulation signals; and (4) brain stimulating electrodes linked to the brain that implement behavioral intervention. Demonstration of the system with stimulating electrodes implanted in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in running mice reveals the great effect of forced ceasing action. The mice stop their running within several seconds when the stimulation signals are sent into the PAG brain region (inducing fear). This self-powered scheme for neural stimulation realizes specific behavioral intervention without any external power supply, thus providing a new concept for future behavior intervention.