Advances and challenges in ginseng research from 2011 to 2020: the phytochemistry, quality control, metabolism, and biosynthesis†
Covering: 2011 to the end of 2020
Panax species (Araliaceae), particularly P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng, have a long history of medicinal use because of their remarkable tonifying effects, and currently serve as crucial sources for various healthcare products, functional foods, and cosmetics, aside from their vast clinical preparations. The huge market demand on a global scale prompts the continuous prosperity in ginseng research concerning the discovery of new compounds, precise quality control, ADME (absorption/disposition/metabolism/excretion), and biosynthesis pathways. Benefitting from the ongoing rapid development of analytical technologies, e.g. multi-dimensional chromatography (MDC), personalized mass spectrometry (MS) scan strategies, and multi-omics, highly recognized progress has been made in driving ginseng analysis towards “systematicness, integrity, personalization, and intelligentization”. Herein, we review the advances in the phytochemistry, quality control, metabolism, and biosynthesis pathway of ginseng over the past decade (2011–2020), with 410 citations. Emphasis is placed on the introduction of new compounds isolated (saponins and polysaccharides), and the emerging novel analytical technologies and analytical strategies that favor ginseng's authentic use and global consumption. Perspectives on the challenges and future trends in ginseng analysis are also presented.