Toward cleaner production of nanocellulose: a review and evaluation
Nanocellulose has become a hotspot in the field of green and sustainable materials. As a “clean material”, however, the traditional production process is not completely clean as imagined. In recent years, considerable research progress has been made in the selection of sustainable source materials and the development of clean production processes for nanocellulose. Firstly, this review summarises research publications about sustainable nanocellulose source materials. After that, advances in cleaner nanocellulose production processes are reviewed, including improvements or replacements of chemical treatment to decrease the usage of deleterious chemicals, strengthening of mechanical methods to decrease energy input, and improvements of the overall process flow, emphasizing recycling and regeneration. Subsequently, the evaluation of the nanocellulose environment, health and safety aspects and life cycle assessments are emphasized. Ultimately, the suggestions for promoting the industrialisation of nanocellulose were proposed to provide references for the clean and large-scale production of the nanocellulose industry.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Green Chemistry Reviews