Impact of emulsifiers for the nanoencapsulation with maltodextrin of cannabis oil by spray drying on the physicochemical properties and bioaccessibility of cannabinoids
Our study aimed to investigate the impact of various emulsifiers, namely whey protein isolate (WPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), and Tween 80 (Tw), on their ability to encapsulate cannabis oil with maltodextrin as the wall material. The physicochemical properties of the powder, the stability of the cannabinoids, and their bioaccessibility during static in vitro digestion were examined. The average diameter of fat globules in liquid nanoemulsions was 170, 259, and 95 nm for WPI, SPI, and Tw, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency was high for protein emulsifiers (>95%) compared to Tw (∼16%). Upon powder reconstitution in water, the emulsified fat droplets remained stable for WPI (176 nm); however, higher fat globule size (diameters of 346 nm and 210 nm) was observed for SPI and Tw powders, respectively. All oil powders had high solubility (>97%). The peroxide value (PV) showed nearly a fourfold increase for the oil extracted from the powder than the initial PV of bulk oil (5.2 mEq). However, UPLC-TUV analysis of the main cannabinoids (CBD, THC, and CBN) indicated that there is no significant difference between the various formulations and the bulk oil, except for lower Tw. The in vitro digestion model results showed higher bioaccessibility of the cannabinoids for Tw (∼53%) than for proteins (WPI ∼ 7% and SPI ∼ 10%). These findings suggest that the emulsifiers used for spray drying nanoencapsulation of cannabis oil have an impact on the encapsulation efficiency and cannabinoid bioaccessibility, highlighting the importance of choosing adequate emulsifiying agents for their optimal oral delivery.