O-Sulfation disposition of curcumin and quercetin in SULT1A3 overexpressing HEK293 cells: the role of arylsulfatase B in cellular O-sulfation regulated by transporters
Extensive phase II metabolic reactions (i.e., glucuronidation and sulfation) have resulted in low bioavailability and decreased biological effects of curcumin and quercetin. Compared to glucuronidation, information on the sulfation disposition of curcumin and quercetin is limited. In this study, we identified that BCRP and MRP4 played a critical role in the cellular excretion of curcumin-O-sulfate (C-O-S) and quercetin-O-sulfate (Q-O-S) by integrating chemical inhibition with transporter knock-down experiments. Inhibited excretion of sulfate (C-O-S and Q-O-S) caused significant reductions in cellular O-sulfation of curcumin (a maximal 74.4% reduction) and quercetin (a maximal 76.9% reduction), revealing a strong interplay of sulfation with efflux transport. It was further identified that arylsulfatase B (ARSB) played a crucial role in the regulation of cellular O-sulfation by transporters. ARSB overexpression significantly enhanced the reduction effect of MK-571 on the cellular O-sulfation (fmet) of the model compound (38.8% reduction for curcumin and 44.2% reduction for quercetin). On the contrary, ARSB knockdown could reverse the effect of MK-571 on the O-sulfation disposition of the model compound (29.7% increase for curcumin and 47.3% increase for quercetin). Taken together, ARSB has been proven to be involved in cellular O-sulfation, accounting for transporter-dependent O-sulfation of curcumin and quercetin. A better understanding of the interplay beneath metabolism and transport will contribute to the exact prediction of in vivo drug disposition and drug–drug interactions.