Fluorinated metal–organic frameworks for gas separation
Fluorinated metal–organic frameworks (F-MOFs) as fast-growing porous materials have revolutionized the field of gas separation due to their tunable pore apertures, appealing chemical features, and excellent stability. A deep understanding of their structure–performance relationships is critical for the synthesis and development of new F-MOFs. This critical review has focused on several strategies for the precise design and synthesis of new F-MOFs with structures tuned for specific gas separation purposes. First, the basic principles and concepts of F-MOFs as well as their structure, synthesis and modification and their structure to property relationships are studied. Then, applications of F-MOFs in adsorption and membrane gas separation are discussed. A detailed account of the design and capabilities of F-MOFs for the adsorption of various gases and the governing principles is provided. In addition, the exceptional characteristics of highly stable F-MOFs with engineered pore size and tuned structures are put into perspective to fabricate selective membranes for gas separation. Systematic analysis of the position of F-MOFs in gas separation revealed that F-MOFs are benchmark materials in most of the challenging gas separations. The outlook and future directions of the science and engineering of F-MOFs and their challenges are highlighted to tackle the issues of overcoming the trade-off between capacity/permeability and selectivity for a serious move towards industrialization.